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Machines Like Us

The human penis is a puzzler, no bones about it

Wednesday, 27 June 2012
by Lauren Reid

The penis. It comes in so many different shapes and sizes … and that’s just in humans. As you would imagine, different species have very different penises.

The males in most mammal species, including cats, dogs and rats, have a bone in their penis called a “baculum," or “os penis."

Of course human males don’t possess an os penis – in fact, humans are the only primate species besides the spider monkey to be lacking in this department.

But we aren’t the only mammal not to have one: whales, horses, rhinos, rabbits, elephants, marsupials and hyenas all go without.

So, why do some species have a penis bone?

Well, simply put, to help males maintain an erection long enough to penetrate a female’s reproductive tract and deliver sperm. The baculum is generally kept in the male’s abdomen until it is required, at which point abdominal muscles push it out into the penis, thus causing an erection.

The other function of a baculum is speed. Sliding an already-erect bone into the fleshy penis is much easier and more reliable than waiting for the penis to fill with enough blood to maintain an erection long enough to deposit sperm into a female (as is the case with us ever-romantic human beings).

This speed is of real importance in many species, as mating often has to be quick and opportunistic. It also allows for quantity-over-quality mating. A male lion’s baculum, for instance, allows him to engage in an impressive 250 copulations in four days.

Sure, each copulation only lasts a minute or so, but the male’s ever-ready baculum makes it easy to get geared up for the next willing lioness shortly after his previous ejaculation.

So, inevitably, this brings us to the question of why humans are the only apes to lack a penis bone.

Well, the reason is not entirely clear, but it’s believed to be down to our mating systems and strategies. In the 30th anniversary edition of his book, The Selfish Gene, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins suggested the lack of a human baculum is the result of “sexual selection” by female humans looking for healthy males.