A religious and philosophical belief that a supreme being created the universe, and that this (and religious truth in general) can be determined using reason and observation of the natural world alone, without the need for either faith or organized religion.
The philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences.
A theory or system of thought that regards a domain of reality in terms of two independent principles, especially mind and matter.
A materialist position in the philosophy of mind. Its primary claim is that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
Philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers who study embodied cognition and the embodied mind believe that the nature of the human mind is largely determined by the form of the human body. The embodied mind thesis is opposed to other theories of cognition such as cognitivism, computationalism and Cartesian dualism.
The branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.
In philosophy, essentialism is the view that, for any specific kind of entity, there is a set of characteristics or properties all of which any entity of that kind must possess. Before evolution was developed as a scientific theory, an essentialist view of biology posited all species to be unchanging throughout time. Some religious opponents of evolution continue to maintain this view.
A concept which posits that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur in a self-similar form an infinite number of times.
The change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Though the changes produced in any one generation are small, differences accumulate with each generation and can, over time, cause substantial changes in the organisms. This process can culminate in the emergence of new species. Indeed, the similarities between organisms suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor (or ancestral gene pool) through this process of gradual divergence.
Belief regardless or despite the evidence.
An artistic and social movement begun in Italy in 1909 that violently rejected traditional forms so as to celebrate and incorporate into art the energy and dynamism of modern technology.